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    關于獨立學院教材建設的思考

    第32卷 第4期 寧 波 大 學 學 報 (教 育 科 學 版)

    V ol. 32 No.4

    2010年7月 JOURNAL OF NINGBO UNIVERSITY (EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE EDITION ) Jul. 2010

    收稿日期:2010-05-10

    第一作者簡介:李巧芬(1977-),女,浙江岱山人,研究實習員,主要研究方向:教育管理。E-mail: liqiaofen@http://www.linqijing.com/doc/91a3dfd9ce2f0066f53322a6.html

    關于獨立學院教材建設的思考

    李巧芬,張鳳瓊

    (寧波大學 科學技術學院,浙江 寧波 315211)

    摘 要:獨立學院人才培養目標是應用型高級專門人才,這必然要求有與應用型人才培養目標相適應的教材。基于獨立學院教材建設存在的問題,提出教材建設要處理好學科理論與技能培養、教材與人才培養層次、教材管理與流通等之間的關系,要以能力為主線構建課程體系,建設新的交叉學科的教材,做好立體化教材建設。

    關鍵詞:獨立學院;教材;建設 中圖分類號:G423.3 文獻標識碼:A

    文章編號:1008-0627(2010)04-0036-05

    自1999年高等學校擴大招生規模以來,我國高等教育逐步由精英教育向大眾化教育跨越,獨立學院應運而生。由于在教材的選用方面,多采用“一本”或“二本”的教科書,使獨立學院在知識的教與學的實施過程中問題日益凸現,影響了獨立學院的教育教學質量,制約了獨立學院的發展。《北京高校“十一五”教材建設規劃的意見》中提出,“十一五”期間高等教育教材建設的主要目標是:“按照改革創新的要求,根據不同教育層次、不同專業類別的創新人才培養目標和各學科、專業、課程建設全面需求,在設計和優化課程體系、更新教學內容、推進文理滲透和學科交叉的基礎上,編寫、出版一批具有特色、充分適應新時期教學改革要求的內容新、水平高、實用性和適用性強的精品教材。”[1] 可見,不同教育層次需要有與之相適應的教材配套,深入研究獨立學院的教材建設勢在必行。

    一、獨立學院的教材現狀 我國高等教育的基本特點是專業分工細,課程設置專門化。為適應21世紀科學技術和經濟發展的需要,20世紀末,我國啟動了面向21世紀的教學內容和課程體系改革,編寫出版了一批面向21世紀新教材。

    但是,在獨立學院教材建設方面仍存在許多問題:專門針對培養應用型人才這一層面的教材少,專門針對多樣化人才規格需要的教材少,遵循獨立學院學生的認識規律,特別是培養個性化創新人才的教材更少;教材編寫過分強調知識系統的邏輯性,偏重理論教學的教材較多、反映學科體系的基本原理的教材多,以訓練培養學生應用能力、創新意識和探索精神為教學目標的教材少且實踐性、應用型以及實驗類教材嚴重不足;傳統基礎學科的教材多,基礎課程教材發展更新慢;專業特色較強的教材少,交叉學科的教材更少;教材對新成果、新技術、新標準反映不及時;相當部分學校選用教材的機制不完善,常受到各種因素干擾,一定程度上影響了高質量教材進入課堂。

    具體來說存在以下一些問題:

    1. 教材的規劃和內容制定的出發點只是從學科建設的角度出發,因此教材內容與實踐之間有很大的差距,各門學科都存在著知識結構與實際需要不同程度的更新與淘汰的問題。

    2. 教材編寫者偏重學者或教授,對新知識的接受因人而異,導致在內容制定體系中存在結構上的缺失。如在教材編審成員中,幾乎看不到某學科的實踐前沿人員,如某行業公司的經營者、管理者的身影。同時,由于編審者多數年齡偏大,新知識不能及時寫進教材,這已成為高校教材的通病。

    3. 從教材與人才的培養關系上看,教材編寫受到以分科為中心的課程理論的影響,強調按

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